Endurance sports can accelerate muscle repair in old age

As we age, the body’s ability to repair damaged tissue also deteriorates. A new study by the Stanford School of Medicine in California (USA) now indicates that endurance exercise can reverse this process and thus have a rejuvenating effect on muscle repair. The study was published on April 13 in the journal ” Nature Metabolism “. Thomas Rando, professor of neurology and lead author of the study, and his research team let mice of different ages run extensively on exercise bikes for the study. There was an effect on muscle mass, particularly in the older animals. “We have found that regular exercise restores the youthfulness of tissue repair. Their muscle stem cells look and behave like those of much younger animals, ”explained Rando in a statement from the Standford School of Medicine . “Like reversing the aging process in older people Applied to humans, this would mean that jogging, swimming, cycling, and other endurance activities could help older people recover as quickly and efficiently as the younger selves once did. Rando explains: “In a way, this is like reversing the aging process in an older person who already suffers from age-typical diseases.” According to the researchers, this is made possible through endurance exercises. As a result, old body cells behaved like young cells and acquired their properties. Stem cells affect muscle repair Embryonic or pluripotent stem cells are able to replicate any tissue in the body. For the study, however, the researchers examined so-called muscle stem cells, which are limited in their potential. Until they are activated, these cells remain in a kind of resting state along the muscle fibers. They are only activated when the corresponding molecular signals are received and begin to repair muscles. “Studies carried out by us and those of other scientists have shown that tissue regeneration declines with age and that this is due to a declining function of the adult stem cells,” explains study leader Rando. “Many researchers are looking for a way to restore youthfulness.” Rando points out that exercise has long been known to reduce age-related health problems, “including cardiovascular disease, cancer and possibly even Alzheimer’s disease. There is great interest in understanding how exercise brings these health benefits. ” How did the researchers go about the study? Rando’s team of scientists investigated whether and how voluntary training influences the function of muscle stem cells in mice. For this purpose, the animals were divided into two groups: The older mice in the first group were 20 months old, which corresponds to an age of 60 to 70 years in humans. The average age of the mice in the second group was three to four months (corresponds to 20 to 30 years for humans). Both groups had access to an exercise bike, on which the animals were allowed to run to their hearts’ content. While the older mice covered around five kilometers per night, the young animals covered an average of ten kilometers. In two further control groups with older and younger animals, however, the wheels did not turn. “The animals trained at the intensity they felt comfortable with,” says Rando. A subsequent study showed that the muscle stem cells of the training mice remained in a resting position and that the animals had not yet built up a significant number of new muscle fibers in response to the training. After three weeks there was a clear difference between the groups After three weeks of running at night on the running bike, there were significant differences between the mouse groups. The untrained and barely active older mice of the first control group were less able to repair muscle damage than the younger untrained control group. So far as no surprise – the researchers had roughly expected this result. With the older trained animals, however, the picture was different. In the senior mice who regularly got on the exercise bike at night, the muscle repair looked significantly better than in their peers who did not exercise. In the younger animals, however, the exercise advantage was not shown. The researchers also obtained similar results when they transplanted muscle stem cells from older, trained mice into younger animals. The stem cells of the training animals therefore contributed more to regeneration than those of the inactive mice. Positive effects can also be transmitted via blood Rando’s research team continued to investigate whether the effect could also be achieved by injecting blood. To do this, they injected the blood of older but trained mice into old, untrained animals. Here, too, there was an improvement in the function of tissue-specific stem cells.

Calisthenics – This trend sport turns the street into a fitness studio

The wall bars, horror of physical education in school, are advancing to the hip fitness equipment. The reason for this is the trend sport calisthenics. FITBOOK explains what is behind it. Calisthenics – also known as “Street Workout” – has developed more and more into a trend sport in recent years. In the USA, however, the form of training has been known for a long time. It all began on the streets of New York at the turn of the millennium. The city set up various sports parks in residential areas with bars, wall bars, parallel bars and pull-up bars, in which people could train far away from the gym – comparable to the well-known “keep fit” trails in this country. The  sport calisthenics developed from this simple form of outdoor fitness with dips , pull-ups and push-ups . The name comes from the Greek and is made up of “kalos” – beautiful and “sthenos” – power. Calisthenics is about this combination: endurance, strength and body control paired with aesthetics and elegant movement sequences in the individual exercises. Calisthenics is based on your own weight The followers of the sport don’t need much for training. “The focus is on your own body weight,” explains Austrian calisthenics master Achim Gölles, who has his own  YouTube channel  . You can train with whatever is available: park bench, wall, ladder. In a more professional environment, for example, bars and wall bars are added. According to the expert, self-weight training has the decisive advantage that not only individual muscles are addressed, but entire muscle groups. In calisthenics, full-body tension is crucial. However, since the weight remains constant, the exercises have to be made more difficult in other ways – for example by using super sets (minimizing the break), adjusting the lever or angle and performing explosively. Training together is more fun!  Calisthenics is more than a mixture of parkour, breakdance and gymnastics. “There’s a lifestyle behind it,” explains Florian Schachner from the Austrian calisthenics club Team Alpha Bar. “You meet in groups and train together, mostly outside.” It’s not just about fitness. “The social component is very important.” How and where can you try out calisthenics?  Anyone who’s really got into calisthenics: So far, training groups for sport have mainly been found in large cities such as Berlin, Hamburg and Munich. You can also start training at home, there are enough videos on the Internet for beginners. However, it is important not to overwhelm your own body and to increase the intensity in the training plan slowly and continuously. Calisthenics exercises for beginners With the professionals, the acrobatic exercises in calisthenics look very simple, but the way to perfection is long. Beginners should first train the basics with a few basic exercises. Graduated sports teacher David Schlesinger recommends squats, dips, push-ups and pull-ups. Plus forearm support (planking) as well as sit-ups and Russian twist to strengthen the abdominal muscles. “Most of the basics can be done very comfortably at home,” says Schlesinger about FITBOOK. In a calisthenics park you could be overwhelmed without the basics and lose motivation, so really start with simple exercises and slowly increase the complexity after a certain time. Professional Achim Gölles uses an example to explain how it can be done during training: In order to be able to bring the body into a horizontal position one day in the so-called “front lever” on the bar, you first start with pull-ups. If you can’t do this, start with strength exercises for your arms, etc. Because, as with most sports, the same applies to calisthenics: you should start small, stick to the training plan and, above all, have fun!

Sport despite allergies? You have to be aware of that

Allergies have been booming for many years. Itchy eyes or violent sneezing fits are the most harmless symptoms. Asthma attacks or circulatory problems are worse. The long-planned participation in the marathon can sometimes falter. But how dangerous are allergies? And how can we do sports despite hay fever and birch pollen blowing around? We were looking for a renowned allergy expert and he and Prof. Randolf Brehler found. Almost every third German suffers from an allergy, and the number is rising. The number of allergy sufferers has almost doubled since 2008. There is speculation about the reasons. Climate change is also considered to be a possible factor, because the pollen count is significantly stronger in hotter months and also begins earlier and earlier. Some allergy sufferers already complain of the first symptoms at the end of February, and in large cities soot and fine dust particles stick to the pollen. This also stimulates the immune system. Sports events such as marathons, but also everyday training such as jogging or playing football in the park can quickly become torture. Allergies are not a question of age Although young adults are particularly often affected, allergies can arise at any stage of life – but they can also disappear again. “We are currently observing that many older people suddenly develop an allergy. It may have something to do with our eating habits or excessive hygiene. What exactly play a role has not yet been conclusively clarified, ”explains Prof. Dr. Brehler from the Münster University Hospital across from FITBOOK. What are typical symptoms of an allergy? Of course, every person shows individual symptoms, which also depend on the intensity of the allergy. Common signs of an allergy are: a runny nose severe sneezing attacks Difficulty breathing fatigue itchy eyes Is exercise dangerous with an allergy? “In principle, sport is also recommended for people with allergies,” says Prof. Brehler. Because training not only prevents obesity, high blood pressure or diabetes. “The lungs also benefit. And a strong lungs can cope better with the symptoms of an allergy. ”But:“ Allergy sufferers have to know their individual limits and adapt their training accordingly. ” Take hay fever, for example: Birch pollen allergy sufferers who exercise outside in the spring often suffer from severe symptoms such as a runny nose or even shortness of breath. If these symptoms are not treated early or consistently, chronic lung problems can develop. “Therefore, bronchodilator medication should be inhaled before exercise,” says Prof. Brehler. Sport and allergy: what symptoms go to the doctor? Itchy eyes or constant sneezing are annoying, but not dangerous. These symptoms can be treated well with over-the-counter medicines called antihistamines. “However, if you have very pronounced symptoms such as shortness of breath, you should always consult an allergist,” emphasizes Prof. Brehler. “The doctor can use a skin test or a blood test to identify triggering allergens and clarify whether a specific immunotherapy (formerly also called desensitization) can provide relief.” With a typical pollen allergy, nasal showers or not using nicotine can do a lot. Bed linen should also be changed as often as possible during the pollen season. Does an injection from the doctor help with allergies? What if none of that helps? Many allergy sufferers want a quick solution, especially before a sports event or long-awaited vacation. A syringe from the doctor that reliably relieves the symptoms is then a possible alternative. “However, these cortisone injections can have considerable side effects,” warns Prof. Brehler. As a result of the therapy, abscesses could occur, and with long-term treatment, among other things, increased bone loss. “Intramuscular injections with depot cortisone preparations must therefore be strictly discouraged.” If really necessary, corticosteroid tablets, which are then taken over a short period, are preferable. How does diet affect my allergy? Those who cannot tolerate walnuts, dairy products or certain fruits often have a food allergy. A nervous stomach, nausea and diarrhea are possible consequences that make exercise impossible. Caution is particularly advisable with so-called Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (WDEIA). This is an allergy to a certain wheat protein. Athletes with this allergy who train within around two hours after eating foods containing wheat must expect wheals, shortness of breath and circulatory problems. Prevent allergies early on But not eating certain foods is always the right thing to do. “It used to be assumed that not eating fish or peanuts prevented allergies,” says Prof. Brehler. “Today we know that the immune system has to deal with these allergens in order to develop such a tolerance.” This should ideally be started after the 4th month of life. “Infants should be fully breastfed for the first four months and then eat as many different foods as possible through complementary foods. In this way, the development of allergies can be prevented at an early stage. ”And:“ If you know your body, can realistically assess load limits and seek advice from a competent allergist, you can get your allergies under control, ”emphasizes Prof. Dr. Brehler. In case of doubt, the expert advises, you should take fast-acting medication with you to protect yourself in the event of an emergency. Then sport is fun again.

Why do you often get gas while exercising?

Flatulence during exercise is bothersome and unfortunately not uncommon. FITBOOK asked gastrointestinal experts why intestinal gases want to escape during exertion, and how the problem can be prevented in the best possible way. When it comes to sport, the body actually has enough to do. Unfortunately, flatulence often occurs during physical exertion. This is of course uncomfortable to embarrassing during training or in a competitive situation. But where does it come from? Why does flatulence develop at all? “In principle, flatulence is a sign that the intestine is working.” That says Dagmar Mainz, spokeswoman for the professional association of established gastroenterologists . The air that tries to escape has entered the body together with the food. Part of it leaves it again through the stomach – as a “burp” – and the remaining air travels on into the intestines. Bacteria are located there, which produce gases. If the air ingested when eating meets these gases, the mixture swirls through the intestines and wants to go outside. Voilà, the pup is ready. Flatulence during exercise “Exercise paralyzes the intestines, so gas and flatulence can be promoted,” says nutritionist and internist Dr. med. Matthias Riedl on FITBOOK. Sport means a break from active work for the gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, the bowel is massaged passively through movement, so that the gases that arise are better transported away. “So digestion is disturbed,” says Riedl, “but not the removal of gases.” How can you avoid flatulence while exercising? The experts do not guarantee that this will reliably prevent flatulence during sport. But they did tell us what one should do or avoid in order to at least reduce the likelihood of uncomfortable pressure from the intestinal area as much as possible. No high fiber foods Various foods can lead to flatulence, warns Dagmar Mainz. Including “raw vegetables in the form of fruit and vegetables, muesli and dairy products”. Note: Even if they are otherwise beneficial for health – before exercise is not the right time for high-fiber foods. Before stressful sport: do not eat anything Especially before stressful team sports or a competition, Dr. Riedl recommend not to eat anything. This is because the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated and the symptoms of people who are prone to gastrointestinal problems may worsen. The sympathetic nervous system is a part of the autonomic nervous system that, depending on evolution, prepares people to fight, for example, or to flee. So-called stress hormones are released, the heartbeat becomes faster and stronger – and the bowel function is also influenced. Drink slowly Sure, the fluid balance is essential when exercising. At the same time, hasty drinking – especially carbonated – promotes the development of flatulence. So better drink slowly and stay away from the sparkling water. Various teas (e.g. with caraway and fennel seeds, peppermint leaves and chamomile flowers) can reduce the tendency to flatulence. No protein shake before exercise Last but not least, a known side effect of various protein powders for making a shake is that they can promote flatulence. It is therefore better not to take such food supplements before exercising. What to do if you have to fart? You can try a light, circular, clockwise massage to keep the bloating away. In a competition or a tennis match, of course, that doesn’t work. If you want to feel better quickly, sooner or later you have to let the intestinal gases escape. Probably a minor problem when training alone and outdoors. Otherwise (e.g. in the fitness studio), please briefly look for the space or the washrooms. Otherwise there will be thick air.

The right music in sports can make training more effective

Sport without music – that is unthinkable for many. In fact, there are some arguments in favor of getting sprinkled during your workout, because the right playlist can make training more effective.  For some, it is unimaginable to exercise without music. In many fitness studios, the speakers can even be heard so loudly that you think you’re in a club. But how effective is music in sports? Studies show: those who listen to music while exercising are more productive There are many studies that deal with the positive relationship between music and athletic performance. In a study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Brazilian researchers had 15 runners complete 5-kilometer runs – with and without music. Result: those who listened to music ran faster the first two laps. In the following laps, the times were even then, but in the end it was still evident that runs with music over the entire distance led to a slightly better time. A study by the University of Southern Queensland also provides interesting conclusions about music in sport: the Australian researchers examined 139 existing research results in which the effect of music during training on performance was examined. Sports in which music is a direct component, such as dancing, gymnastics or figure skating, were excluded. The team led by Professor Peter Terry, Dean of Research and Innovation at the University of Southern Queensland, identified four possible effects of music: psychological reactions, physiological reactions, psychophysical reactions and changes in athletic performance. Music and its effect on the psyche It has not yet been proven that music has a measurable effect on lactate formation, oxygen supply or heart rate during training. And yet other physical changes were found that explain the increase in performance during training. The reason for this is the so-called psychosomatic effect that music has on us. We automatically connect familiar melodies or voices, sounds or texts with a situation from the past, a person or a feeling. When hearing, associations are evoked and an emotion is triggered in us as a reaction. This in turn ensures noticeable physical reactions that are noticeable in different ways. For example, through a change in skin temperature and moisture, an effect on posture or through a change in muscle tone, the state of tension in the muscles, which increases or loosens depending on the music. The effect of music in sport is therefore a psychological effect, but it has been proven that a reaction of the neuro-vegetative system caused by the sound stimuli is linked to it. The neurovegetative system controls body processes that are not carried out by our own will, but are determined by the nervous system, such as our skin breathing. This psychosomatic effect of music during sports can also lead to an increase in athletic performance. This has also been shown in studies with both marathon runners and beginners, who in both cases increased their performance under the influence of music by up to 15 percent. Listening to music not only during but also before exercise By the way, you shouldn’t just focus on music during exercise – listening to music before exercise can also be effective. You can use it to arouse positive emotions and memories, which should lead to a more balanced, more concentrated state. Quiet, relaxed music can also help to release tension and reduce nervousness and restlessness. Listening to music can also be used as a form of meditation before exercise in order to prepare yourself mentally for the training. A study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research shows that this works . Researchers found that listening to music before exercising reduced what is known as vagotonia. This is a state of our autonomic nervous system in which the body is strongly focused on rest and relaxation. Both our physical and mental alertness are increased by listening to music and athletes feel more motivated and more excited about their upcoming physical exertion. By the way, top athletes from all areas also rely on this effect. Many athletes can be seen wearing headphones both before athletics competitions and before football matches. What to look for in the workout playlist But is there actually the ideal training playlist? Yes and no. Because that’s very individual. Familiar and popular songs with which you associate something positive, such as a person or a feeling such as strength, willpower or perseverance, are particularly suitable for music in sports. It is different for everyone. It is important, however, to select songs with a reasonable speed. Our movement automatically adapts to the rhythm of the music during sport. If this is too slow, it can slow you down unnecessarily, on the other hand, songs that are too fast carry the risk of being too exhausted. You should also pay attention to the order and the interplay of calm and energetic songs. From a scientific point of view, it is recommended for intensive strength training or a competition to put around 80 percent fast and driving songs and 20 percent calmer, relaxed music on the playlist. So if you already know in advance how intensive the training should look like and how many speed and rest phases it will contain, you can create the optimal workout playlist in advance. Our editors like to hear that best when it comes to sports As is well known, musical tastes are different and are very special when it comes to sports. At least that was the impression when we asked some colleagues from the BOOKs editorial team about their favorite music for running, pumping, etc. Laura Graichen (myHOMEBOOK) “During a workout, I need music that pushes and animates me. That works best with hip hop – the more bass the better. “ Felix Mildner (myHOMEBOOK) “Whenever I go, I usually hear bad Death Metal – against the weaker self.” Adrian Mühlroth (TECHBOOK) “I always need variety when training, but in principle there are dub, hip-hop, drum’n’bass and reggaeton – and the occasional outlier.” Marlene Polywka (TECHBOOK) “I like to listen to electronics and trance during the workout, for the stretching exercises at the end and also for the good mood in between, but personally I also like DJ Bobo. Rhythmically, the playlist is pretty much adapted to my tempo. “ Flavio Treppner (FITBOOK) “I always have to be yelled at during training to make the last few repetitions work. That’s why I listen to rock and metal. “ Carolin Berscheid (FITBOOK) “My playlist for sports actually consists almost entirely of German rap. That motivates and pushes me the most. Capital Bra, Shindy, Kontra K, Bonez MC – there is everything here. “ But why sport can sometimes be good without music Anna Kessler (FITBOOK) “As a runner, I also know the agonizing“ I-don’t-like-anymore-thoughts ”and I was a big fan of suppressing them with beats that pushed me. My athletics coach with whom I met for my 10 km under 45 minutes challenge train, but advised me early on to run without music. Instead of repressing the exertion, I should think about it: how does the run feel in each moment? How do the individual steps feel? Is the leg and arm work going smoothly? Am I straining right now – or am I complaining? I’ve been doing this for a few weeks now and I get along very well with this running mindfulness. Contrary to my expectations, these runs don’t feel boring, on the contrary! I am now more aware of my body and my surroundings. Running without music – you should try it! “

Exercise in the heat – what you should pay attention to

Many people like to exercise outdoors in the summer. You just work up a sweat without much exercise at temperatures above 30 degrees. Last but not least, solar radiation can also be a problem. In order to avoid the risk of sunburn or other damage to health while exercising in the heat, take note of the following tips. So much in advance: Exercise in the heat is basically allowed and of course also healthy. However, certain precautionary measures should be taken in the event of very high temperatures and strong sunlight. This mainly affects cardiovascular types of sport, as Prof. Tim Meyer from the Institute for Sport and Preventive Medicine at Saarland University explains. This means, for example, endurance sports such as running and cycling. Choosing the right time of day for exercise In contrast to team sports, where the individual has little say in terms of training times, you can choose the time of day for your private sports program more freely. So if you can, you should move the jogging round to the early morning or evening. If the training is only possible at noon or in the afternoon, it is best to go to the forest. It is shady there and the ozone levels are lower, even on hot days. Those with a predisposition must be particularly careful Particularly careful are those who know that they have an illness. Especially cardiovascular patients should definitely consult their doctor before exercising in the heat. Drink a lot! Important for all athletes: drink a lot. Eventually, the body loses more fluid through sweating more. In addition to the recommended 1.5 liters per day, summer athletes preferably drink 100 milliliters of water every 15 minutes, in small sips. An additional large glass of water right before exercise, and then the best thing to do is to grab the mineral water to give the body back nutrients such as sodium that have sweated out. Minimize the risk of sunstroke If you are fully absorbed in training, you often do not notice how hard the sun really is shining. Sabine Kind, lecturer at the German University for Prevention and Health Management (DHFPH) , gave more detailed information . In more severe cases, a sunburn on the scalp could result in a headache – and if there is nausea, fever and dizziness, it may even be a sunstroke. Protection on the head is therefore important – but fortunately it is simply implemented, “preferably with a head covering,” says Kind. “It can be a baseball cap, a sun hat or a helmet.” Protect the skin from UV rays Last but not least, outdoor athletes are exposed to intense UV radiation. As a result, there is a risk of pathological changes to the skin in the long term, which can turn into skin cancer. If someone does sports outside during the day, sun protection is therefore essential, emphasizes Kind. Apply lotion before exercising in the sun Which sun protection factor you need depends on the strength and duration of the sun exposure as well as your skin type. In order to avoid sunburn, according to Sabine Kind, one should opt for a slightly higher sun protection factor in case of doubt. Where you train is also crucial “Particularly in the mountains and on the water, particularly intensive protection is required,” says the expert. In other words, at high altitudes and where the sun reflects and therefore shines even more strongly. When buying, make sure that the product is waterproof and sweatproof.   Do not forget sun terraces when applying lotion Ideally, you should apply the cream thoroughly half an hour before you go out in the sun and top it up every now and then. Please do not forget exposed areas – such as the transitions to the headgear. The protection of the so-called sun terraces is also of particular importance. These include areas exposed to the sun such as the forehead, ears, eyes, lips, nose, neck and crown. “It is better to use a high protection factor here and reapply the cream regularly,” advises the child expert.   Choosing the right sportswear Even when it is hazy, you shouldn’t take sunscreen lightly. “Even with cloudy skies or cooler temperatures, you should apply lotion all over your body and under your clothes,” says Sabine Kind. “Normal sportswear can let through up to 30 percent of the radiation.” But there are also clothing with certified UV protection, especially for water sports. However, even here tricky: the transition points from the skin to the fabric. If you don’t put lotion on yourself, you can easily get burned.   The skin around the eyes is particularly sensitive Many underestimate the dangers of UV rays for the eyes. As FITBOOK reported in an earlier article, there is a risk of skin cancer in the sensitive, thin-skinned eye area . Sabine Kind sees it the same way. “Therefore, non-slip sports glasses with a high UV factor are recommended for activities,” says the expert. “If you are unsure, it’s best to ask an optician and get advice.”

How sport becomes the solution to many everyday problems

“Movement is a fundamental element of being human. In today’s society, however, we live in a constant lack of movement, ”says Prof. Schneider. Jobs are often only done while sitting, we hardly have to strain ourselves to eat, and we no longer have to leave the house to talk to others. The expert: “Sport is, so to speak, the artificial substitute for this lack of exercise.” And it not only helps to keep the body healthy: the body, psyche and social life all benefit from regular physical activity! 3 effects that sport has on the psyche In the short term: Sport is a stress killer. Prof. Schneider: “For evolutionary reasons, the stress hormones are essential for survival. They release forces that enable us to fight, hunt – or run away as the hunted. Nowadays it is of course not a solution to hand out a colleague or run away when something is stressing us. So this sewerage through movement is missing. But if we do a strenuous workout, then we reduce stress in a very effective and socially acceptable way. “ In the medium term: sleep gets better, thinking skills benefit. “Sport makes you tired. Those who are tired sleep better and thus have better cognitive performance the next day. “ Long-term: We remain flexible, capable of learning and adapting. “We know that sport leads to neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in the long term, that is, to the formation of new nerve cells and interconnections of nerve cells.” And social life is also linked to exercise: on the one hand we like to do sports with our fellow human beings, on the other hand interpersonal skills are strengthened by moving together – #nice, right? How can exercise help you?   Problem 1: Insecurity, little self-confidence, fear of conflict 🤼‍♂️ Solution: (kick) boxing, fitboxing, Krav Maga, martial arts etc. ▶ ︎ Explanation: It was no coincidence that during school days it was always the sports cannons who were bursting with self-confidence: “Climbing trees, playing football and playing catch – we test ourselves physically in childhood, and that gives us confidence in our own body and in ourselves. ”We notice what the body can do, we get to know disciplines in which we are really good – that wipes away uncertainties and affects all areas of life. “So it is elementary that children try out many different sports, and calmly notice what it is like to fall down and get up again. Practice creates masters. These are physical experiences that also help in further life. Fight, don’t always give up immediately and sometimes fall on your face, in the proverbial sense, but then have the strength and courage to carry on. “ Even in adulthood, exercise can give self-confidence: “Sports such as martial arts, self-defense, etc. should be mentioned here in particular. Even the body language you learn while boxing, for example, signals self-confidence, ”says the sports expert. This feeling then carries over to other conflicts in private or at work.  Problem 2: Lack of creativity, difficulty in making decisions 🚵‍♀️ Solution: A demanding workout, e.g. cycling in difficult terrain, yoga in challenging poses or jogging, swimming, or the like. at full throttle. ▶ ︎ Explanation: Taking a break from difficult cognitive activities is always good for the brain. If you do sport during a break like this, it has an even more blatant effect: “For movements, completely different brain areas are activated than for pure mental work. So computing power is taken from the frontal cortex (which is mainly responsible for thinking) and sent to the motor cortex (which controls movements). Incidentally, this can be proven electrophysiologically and happens in this way at any age. In this way, the frontal cortex can first regenerate and after this break it is more receptive to logical operations and flashes of inspiration. And the more intense the movement, the stronger the phenomenon! ”Explains Prof. Schneider. Problem 3: Teamwork is difficult, problems of trust among colleagues 🧗‍♂️Solution: tackle sporting challenges with colleagues: hiking, running, etc. ▶ ︎ Explanation: “Trust in fellow human beings is also created at a young age. Team sports are particularly important for children and their team skills. But even in adulthood, among colleagues, for example, sport can make a difference. And that by simply mastering a sporting challenge with your team: climbing a mountain as a team or taking part in a city run. Once you’ve sweated and suffered together, then suddenly there is a completely different relationship of trust, ”the expert knows. That leads to seeing colleagues in a completely different light, and it will almost certainly have an effect on the work together. Problem 4: Frustration or anger that you can’t let go of 🏃‍♂️ Solution: Do sports, preferably intensively. ▶ ︎ Explanation: Even angry and frustrated thoughts take a back seat when doing sports. Spirals of thought are broken, negative emotions are weakened. “In addition, the physical ‘pain’ that we feel during exertion re-engages us, making problems or sources of frustration appear in a completely different light,” says the neuroscientist. And after the sport unit, a feeling of happiness automatically sets in when the physical pain of the exertion subsides and you know that you have achieved something – no more room for negative emotions! And when we are in a better mood, we automatically appear friendlier, so exercise can even make us nicer people!   Problem 5: Lack of motivation and drive 🤾‍♀️ Solution: Do sports – preferably in company! ▶ ︎ Explanation: Movement is always a help for listlessness and sadness. “At the same time, it is of course particularly difficult in this case to arouse the motivation for the sport itself,” the neuroscientist classifies the problem. The recommendation: have the will and immediately make an appointment with someone you trust or, ideally, with a group to do sports. “Once you know that others are waiting for you, it is more difficult to cancel.” And finally, all other positive effects occur in sport: brooding takes a back seat, happiness hormones flood the body, you feel connected to your sport colleagues. Even if you notice that people in your immediate environment – possibly in or after a difficult phase – have problems motivating themselves: actively approach them, arrange sports dates. This helps you to help the other and yourself alike.   Getting involved in sport on a regular basis therefore has enormously positive effects in many ways. Every single training session (provided you don’t overdo it, of course) is good for us! “And sport is THE retirement provision par excellence. Quite apart from the many good effects on physical health, sport keeps us flexible, enables long independence, adaptability and many contacts into old age! “

What to look for in functional clothing for outdoor sports

Those who take their training seriously do the same with their sports outfit – also, but not only, for style reasons. Find out what the appropriate functional clothing is for different sports – depending on the weather and the season. When it comes to functional clothing, it comes down to the cut, which, depending on the sporting discipline, must guarantee the necessary freedom of movement. And when it comes to processing, you should also pay closer attention: Functional clothing with special flat seams or so-called bondings, in which the individual fabric ends are welded together so that there is no uncomfortable pressure or pinch, is preferable. But almost more important: the material. Depending on the training conditions, it should warm or cool, protect and / or compress. In everyday fashion, still one of the most popular materials, cotton has largely left the sports segment. Not without reason: as pleasantly soft as cotton feels on the skin, it is so difficult to absorb sweat. As a result, its fibers soak up full, increase their volume and the fabric becomes damp and heavy on the skin. Running: what should you watch out for in functional clothing? Cut : For runners, tight-fitting cuts that don’t flap or flap in the wind are recommended. They can also absorb sweat from the skin in the best possible way and transport it to the outside. Everything else – whether cropped tops, ankle-length or knee-length trousers – depends on individual preferences.   Material : More and more manufacturers are relying on man-made fibers made from synthetic polymers, such as microfibers and polyester, for their running lines. They are light and durable, keep their shape for a long time and are not prone to creasing. One of the main advantages of synthetic fibers is that they wick away moisture well and dry quickly if you have sweated in them. Nevertheless, you should wash synthetic functional clothing regularly, as it tends to develop odors. Cycling: what should you watch out for in functional clothing? Cut : Here, too, the clothing should be tight-fitting, if only so as not to end up in the chain or get tangled on the pedals and also for better sweat transport. Tops for cyclists are usually cut short at the front and longer at the back to protect the kidneys – if you get out in the rain and it is windy on top of that, there is a risk of hypothermia in this sensitive area while biking.   Material : Polyester fibers with elastic components are also recommended for cycling, both on the top and bottom. High-quality bike pants that offer comfort on longer tours no longer have anything to do with the wafer-thin cycling shorts that we used to wear on school trips. You ride well with an anatomically shaped seat pad in the buttocks area, which distributes the pressure evenly on the seat and pubic bones – ideally made of antibacterial quality. Hiking: What should you watch out for in functional clothing? Cut : Loose, movement-friendly cuts are ideal for you. However, they shouldn’t be too far – especially when hiking on cooler days, several layers of clothing are often necessary on top of each other. Long pants protect against possible sunburn, ticks and mosquitoes, but they may be too warm in summer. So ideal: zip-up pants with separable legs. Hopefully you have the sunscreen with you anyway.   Material : When hiking, outerwear made from a merino wool-silk blend has proven itself, as it warms at low temperatures and has a cooling effect in summer. It is true that merino wool absorbs moisture, but it dissipates it better than cotton and has a natural antibacterial effect – this prevents odor development. When it comes to pants, it depends a lot on where you are hiking. On day trips, for example in the low mountain ranges, particularly light models are preferred, which also protect against UV radiation. In any case, it should be made of synthetic fiber fabrics that are wind resistant, breathable and also dry quickly when you come into the rain. Also interesting: Typical mistakes that you should definitely avoid when hiking Are there other functional clothing for summer than for winter? The idea is obvious, after all, when training in the heat it is essential not to overheat and nobody wants to freeze. Nevertheless, the material of functional clothing always remains the same, regardless of the temperatures. Of course, as soon as it gets colder, you rely on layered looks with a thermal function, especially when hiking. Fleece underwear is recommended here, along with looser clothing so that heat can be stored in the air between functional washes. Waterproof insulation jackets are essential for outdoor sports in winter . Here personal preference decides between down and polyester jackets. The former are lighter, which many find more pleasant, but clump together in heavy rain and then no longer warm up well. A clear advantage of polyester jackets is that they dry very quickly.

Running expert: “In the beginning, 500 meters are sufficient per unit”

“We couldn’t have wished for a better expert today,” says FITBOOK Move Jam presenter Anna Kraft. And rightly so: If anyone can give tips for a healthy start to running training, then it is Dr. Paul Schmidt-Hellinger, long-distance runner and sports medicine specialist at Charité Berlin. In the 50-kilometer road race, he set the German record, which was also the world’s best performance of the year in 2016. Are you inspired by such success stories? Then put on your running shoes! With the prospect of your own trophies, you should still take your time. “Don’t set too high goals” At least the professional believes that as a beginner you shouldn’t set yourself too high goals. In fact, the very first run should be as short as possible – just 500 meters are enough “for the absolute beginning”, says Schmidt-Hellinger. For the next two or three days, it is important to feel within yourself and observe what is going on in the muscles. Paul Schmidt-Hellinger knows from personal experience that there is no point in overstraining yourself. An injury followed by an operation had put him out of action for more than six months. Then he completed an apparently “relaxed start” back into running training – with a manageable distance of four kilometers – and received the receipt straight away: “I had sore calf muscles and an irritation of the Achilles tendon for over a week.” Tip for beginners: weekly net training times Beginners can do better if they adhere to the expert advice and “weekly net training times”. Dr. Paul Schmidt-Hellinger and his colleagues from sports medicine prescribe this orientation as a recipe for beginners. “In level one there are 30 minutes of net training time per week,” he explains, which can be divided into three units of eight to ten minutes each. Training bites, one could say. And even they don’t have to be powered through. “One possibility would be to run in for two minutes and then jog four times for one minute each time,” says the expert, “with walking breaks in between.” There are also clear guidelines for increasing these weekly net training times. “You increase according to the rule of ten,” says Schmidt-Hellinger. “That means you increase by ten percent per week.” So in week two it would be about 33 minutes, in week three 36 to 37 minutes, and so on. The other expert talks of the FITBOOK MOVE JAM 2020 Regeneration after training – fitness professor Dr. Stephan Geisler Performance enhancement with neurocentric training – Luise Walther Recognizing overtraining correctly – fitness professor Dr. Stephan Geisler How do you avoid “shin splints”? FITBOOK user René (“a passionate runner himself,” as he reports) wants to know how to avoid “shin splints” – new German for the uncomfortable shin splint syndrome, a dreaded injury among runners. FITBOOK editor Anna Kessler, who is currently training to run 10 kilometers in under 45 minutes , also struggled with it at first. Dr. Paul Schmidt-Hellinger explains it as “the middle of a muscular chain that arises due to shortening”. More precisely, most people have a shortened hip flexor muscle. The reason for this: the amount of sitting that is common in our society. Likewise, the muscles in the thighs are often shortened, which pulls the legs inwards. In addition, there is a tendency towards the hollow back. If you now run longer, and then on harder ground, the arch of the foot sinks. “When the arch of the foot sags, it pulls the insertion of the shinbone muscles down.” If this pull always comes in the same three-dimensional vector – for example, because one only ever runs on the treadmill or on straight stretches – it could cause the stabbing complaints of the tibial splint syndrome . Orthopedists speak of an overload of the periosteum.

When Loris Karius targets the freekickerz

Not only do they face every challenge on the lawn, the freekickerz also give their all on the console. This time, the Youtubers compete against a true boss – goalkeeping star Loris Karius. Just this much: you are released for shooting. Among other things, the FC Liverpool keeper fires at 130 km / h from a ball machine at the boys and in Call of Duty: Warzone with them at virtual snipers. It’s sometimes weird, sometimes blatant and always so funny that even the battered losers have to laugh too. How did this battle come about? The YouTube channel freekickerz is probably known to every football fan on the Internet. Founder Konstantin Hert, alias “Konzi”, and five buddies, all of them soccer fans and table footballers, dedicate themselves to the art of the ball in front of the camera. The “Challenges” in which the boys compete against top players are particularly popular with the more than 8 million subscribers. A long-awaited, absolute dream candidate for this was Loris Karius , who, like Konzi, comes from Baden-Württemberg. 1. Challenge: penalty shoot-out with obstacles In the first phase of the challenge, Karius takes on the freekickerz Konzi, Felix and Tim on penalties. A normal penalty would be far too easy, however, so there are nasty little difficulties for everyone – by lot – Karius has to shoot alternately left and right, Konzi has to play with his weak foot, Tim is not allowed to look at goal during his attempts, Felix must aim at the same corner twice in a row. Even under difficult conditions, Loris Karius shoots the ball accurately into the goal. Photo: Call of Duty: Warzone It shows: Tim, midfield star at FC Palatia Limbach, can hold a candle to professional kicker Loris in the penalty shootout. After round five they are both tied with four hits each. Karius suggests as a duel: He goes into the goal and if he holds Tim’s ball, he gets a ball machine as the winner in the next challenge. Karius grins. Karius doesn’t need gloves. Karius holds, rather, takes the ball. What exactly was that with the ball machine? 2. Challenge: Three kicker balls in front of the ball cannon They’re like bunnies with a shotgun, they don’t stand a chance. Konzi, Tim and Felix crowd into the goal, the ball machine is aimed at them. Karius stands behind her and has the fun of his life. For Konzi, Tim and Felix there is no escape from Loris at the ball cannon. Photo: Call of Duty: Warzone In the first stage he will fire footballs at the three in the box at a speed of 90 km / h and try to hit them. Then the next stage is 110 km / h and finally the balls are shot at 130 km / h at the freekickerz. You have to stay between the goal posts and try to evade. Everyone has three lives, each hit wipes out one. Whoever is left at the end has won the thing. It hurts. Tim gets the first hit, a ball with 90 km / h on the bottom. It’s not nice. They band together in fear, cling desperately to the posts, jumping, rolling, screaming. Karius laughs. But, unbelievable – all of them survive this phase of the Call of Duty: Warzone-style challenges and make it into the third round. 3. Challenge: Teamwork in Call of Duty: Warzone For the final challenge, it goes from the seat to the Playstation and the cards are completely shuffled. Being a super kicker doesn’t help much in Call of Duty. It still counts who can aim and shoot best – but on opponents who want to kill you with various weapons (spoiler alert: a ball cannon is not one of them). Now the goalkeeper star Loris Karius has to prove himself on the virtual field of Call of Duty: Warzone. Photo: Call of Duty: Warzone At least Karius and the freekickerz had the chance to prepare. The free to play title Call of Duty: Warzone from Activision has been available for free on PlayStation 4, Xbox One and PC since March. In addition to our four challengers, more than 75 million players worldwide have followed the call of the Battle Royale to prove themselves as a lone fighter or as a team in the action world. An enemy armed to the teeth can lurk around every corner, and up to 150 players take on each other at the same time. How are you supposed to survive this? With teamwork, our boys compete in a squad of four. Your last challenge wins, whoever gets the most kills. Easy right? Yes, and very fun to watch. Felix is ​​a permanent guest at the Gulag, where you can fight to return to the game after being shot down, Karius wants (typically Schwabe) to keep the money together and Konzi usually stands alone on various roofs and waits for reinforcements who never come. The free to play title Call of Duty: Warzone is available for free on PlayStation 4, Xbox One and PC. Photo: Call of Duty: Warzone At the end of the challenge, Felix had the most kills (5), Konzi and Karius three each and Tim, well, was there too (0). However, the four of them won’t let it be good, but will return to the controllers as soon as possible. New seasons and updates are regularly launched in the Warzone. After the game is always before the game!